Sale Definitions


ON TEST WEIGHT is the weight taken in November after the bulls completed the normal adjustment period and started on official test.  (Recorded in pounds)
OFF TEST WEIGHT is the weight on completion of test, that being the weight taken in March. (Recorded in pounds)
A.D.G. ON TEST total gain while on test divided by 112 days.
RESIDUAL FEED INTAKE Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency. It is the difference between the expected feed intake of the animal based on its body weight and growth rate, and what they actually consume. More efficient animals eat less than expected and have a negative or low RFI. Less efficient animals eat more than expected and have a positive or high RFI.

Heritability of RFI is about 40%, and is independent of other production traits. Selecting for lower RFI will decrease feed intake with no detrimental effects on growth or size of the animal.

YEARLING INDEX is the adjusted yearling weight expressed as a percentage of adjusted yearling weight for all bulls on test of that breed.

EXAMPLE: An index of 115 indicates that the bull had a yearling weight of 15 % above the average of all bulls of that breed.

AVERAGE FAT is the ultrasonic measurement of fat cover in millimeters and gives an indication of the relative fat cover on bulls in the sale.  The average on the SALE BULLS is 4.56 mm so buyers can compare bulls to this average.
BREEDING SOUNDNESS EVALUATION All bulls in the sale have been been subject to a Breeding Soundness Evaluation, conducted by the Atlantic Veterinary College.
CALVING EASE SCORE a rating assigned by the breeder to indicate the ease of calving.  Rating indicated by the following letters:

U Unassisted M Mal Presentation
E Easy Pull S Surgical
H Hard Pull V Voluntary Pull


The Rib Eye area gives an indication of overall carcass muscling.  Rib Eye is measured using Real Time Ultrasound.  The “scan” is taken at the grading site between the 12th and 13th ribs.  Rib Eye area is an estimate of lean yield.

LOW = 10 sq. in. and under

Average = 10.1 sq. in. – 13.0 sq. in

High = 13.1 sq. in. and up



Marbling is an indication of intramuscular fat.  Marbling is measured using Real Time Ultrasound.  The “scan” is taken at the grading site between the 12th and 13th rib.  The following table correlates the percentage of intramuscular fat to the Canadian Grading System.

Single A (A) = 1.0 – 3.9

Double A (AA) = 4.0 – 4.9

Triple A (AAA) = 5.0 – 7.9

Canada Prime = 8.0 – 11.0



An EPD (Expected Progeny Difference) is an estimated average number for a particular animal’s trait.  Those traits are things like: birth weight; calving ease; weaning weight; yearling weight and maternal milk.  EPDs are not absolute figures; they are estimates based on averages.  EPDs are based on the animal’s own performance and pedigree records as well as those of its sire, grandsire, and siblings and of course, offspring.

One thing to keep in mind is the EPDs can only be used to compare within breeds.  Each breed has its own average values for EPDs. 

Birth Weight EPD


A bull’s birth weight EPD shows the expected difference in average birth weight (pounds) for his progeny.  Positive values signify heavier than average birth weights for that breed whereas negative values signify lighter birth weights.
Calving Ease (CED) EPD is expressed as percentage of unassisted births, with a higher value indicating greater calving ease in first-calf heifers. It predicts the average difference in ease with which a sire’s calves will be born when he is bred to first-calf heifers
Weaning Weight EPD


A weaning weight EPD shows the ability of the calf to grow between birth and weaning, expressed in pounds of gain.
Yearling Weight EPD


A yearling weight EPD value shows the ability of a bull’s offspring to grow from birth to one year of age, expressed in pounds of gain.
Maternal Milk EPD


Maternal milk EPD is one that signifies the ability of a sire’s daughter to provide the calf with milk and mothering ability expressed as pounds of calf at weaning time.
Accuracy of EPDs


The accuracy (Acc) value for each EPD estimate is very important.  It is a measure of how good the EPD estimate really is.  It is measured from 0 to 1.  The closer to one, the higher the accuracy of that EPD.


Indicates the bulls were fed on a Total Mixed Ration